Throughout Islāmic history, people have had questions or objections regarding beliefs in Islām. This phenomenon is particularly prevalent today, among both non-Muslims and Muslims. The purpose of the science of kalām is to prove these beliefs and defend them by responding to objections that people have raised against them.
Each era had its own set of issues that the mutakallimūn of that time had to face. The Mu’tazilah and Khawārij are examples of influential groups from the past that didn’t conform to the orthodox view of Islāmic theology. In this day and age, different groups attack Islām, such as atheists. The Muslims of the time must uphold their beliefs and fight off emerging contentions. They should at least understand the proofs of basic beliefs.
By learning this science, students of knowledge can answer common questions posed by their communities regarding the Islāmic creed. In these times, many are looking for what logically makes sense, so this science is very useful in inviting others to the dīn of Islām. As for those who already believe, it may increase their belief if they have proof to back it up with. Also, if one reflects on the proofs of Allāh’s attributes, he/she can develop a more personal connection with Him. For example, if someone ponders over the qudrah of Allāh, of how He created everything in the universe, that increases them spiritually.
To conclude, the science of kalām is one of the most important fields in Islām, because believing is what makes an individual a Muslim. Its purpose is to establish Islāmic beliefs and defend them throughout the centuries, based on whatever matters arise. As it has so far had a tremendous impact on our thinking, it will also have an effect on it in the future.